The sesquiplane is a common variation on the biplane where one wing (usually the lower) has not more than half the surface area of the other. The name means "one-and-a-half wings. " The arrangement may reduce interference drag between the wings whilst retaining the biplane's structural advantage. The 1920s Pander E is an example of an aircraft with a lower wing of exactly half the span and nearly one quarter (23%) of the area of the upper one. Some designs keep the upper and lower spans nearly equal whilst reducing the lower chord, of which the best known examples are probably the Nieuport military aircraft—from the Nieuport 10 through to the Nieuport 27, all designed by Gustave Delage during the Great War. Between the wars in Europe, the Fokker C. V sesquiplane served in many air forces while the later Waco Custom Cabin series proved to be a popular example in general aviation. Another notable sesquiplane was the German Junkers J. I armoured ground attack aircraft which was the first mass-produced all-metal combat aircraft to enter service.
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