In the First World War the belligerents built underground shelters, called dugouts in English, while the Germans used the term bunker. By the Second World War the term came to be used by the Germans to describe permanent structures both large: blockhouse, and small: pillbox, and to bombproof shelters both above ground (as in Hochbunker) and below ground (such as the Führerbunker). The military sense of the word was imported into English during World War II, at first in reference to specifically German dug-outs; according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the sense of "military dug-out; a reinforced concrete shelter" is first recorded on 13 October 1939, in "A Nazi field gun hidden in a cemented 'bunker' on the Western front". All the early references to its usage in the Oxford English Dictionary are to German fortifications. However in the Far East the term was also applied to the earth and log positions built by the Japanese, the term appearing in a 1943 instruction manual issued by the British Indian Army and quickly gaining wide currency.
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