Melatonin and other pharmacological agents have been studied for prevention of postoperative delirium, but evidence is not clear. Avoidance or cautious use of benzodiazepines has been recommended for reducing the risk of delirium in critically ill individuals. It is unclear if the medication donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, reduces delirium following surgery. There is also no clear evidence to suggest that citicoline, methylprednisolone, or antipsychotic medications prevent delirium. A review of intravenous versus inhalational maintenance of anaesthesia for postoperative cognitive outcomes in elderly people undergoing non-cardiac surgery showed little or no difference in postoperative delirium according to the type of anaesthetic maintenance agents in five studies (321 participants). The authors of this review were uncertain whether maintenance of anaesthesia with propofol-based total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) or with inhalational agents can affect incidences of postoperative delirium.
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